Embossing: the transfer of a raised pattern from a hard plate to a softer material. This mechanical transfer is usually facilitated by means of heat and always with pressure. Holograms are produced by such a process but here the raised pattern is extremely fine and cannot be felt by touch but can be seen by the eye as a colored image. The hard plate used to produce the embossed effect is usually nickel and the material to which the pattern is transferred is usually polyester.

Encoding: the recording of information onto a receptive medium.

Encrypted Spectral Taggant (EST): A digital data medium comprised of a unique photoluminescent substance added to either liquid or solid materials and is used to authenticate products and materials. Specific product or material information can be encoded into the Taggant and only retrieved and decrypted using an EST Spectrometer.

Encryption: the adaptation of information using ciphers so that unauthorized access is restricted.

E-pedigree: an electronic statement of a product's history and passage through the supply chain, with each movement and trade recorded so that, at any point in the chain and at its end, the lineage of the product can be obtained.


Flexo printing (flexography): the method of printing whereby a mirrored 3D relief of the required image is made in a rubber or polymer material. A measured amount of ink is deposited upon the surface of the printing plate, the print surface then rotates, making contacting with the print material (substrate) and transferring the ink.

Fluorescence: the ability of some molecules or materials to absorb light of one wavelength (color) and re-emit it at a different wavelength. The emitted light ceases to be emitted as soon as the excitation light is extinguished. There is no persistence of emitted light as in the case of phosphorescence.

Foil: a material comprising a polyester carrier with one or more coatings, a release layer and an adhesive layer. The foil is transferred - generally by heat - onto paper, label stock, textiles etc and the carrier is stripped away, leaving the coating which is bonded to the substrate by the adhesive. This coating can be color shift, iridescence, metalized, holographic etc. Also known as hot stamping or transfer foil.

Font: a specific style and size of type face

Forensic markers: see Taggants

Frangible: capable of being broken. Refers to security labels which break up when removed or tampered with.

Frye Test: The Frye standard, Frye test, or general acceptance test is a test to determine the admissibility of scientific evidence. It provides that expert opinion based on a scientific technique is admissible only where the technique is generally accepted as reliable in the relevant scientific community. In Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 509 U.S. 579 (1993), the Supreme Court held that the Federal Rules of Evidence superseded Frye as the standard for admissibility of expert evidence in federal courts.[1] Some states, though still adhere to the Frye standard.

Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE): a code of evidence law governing the admission of facts by which parties in the United States federal court system may prove their cases, both civil and criminal. The Rules were enacted in 1975, with subsequent amendments. The Rules were the product of protracted academic, legislative, and judicial examination before being formally promulgated in 1975. U.S. states are free to adopt or maintain evidence rules different from the Federal Rules, but a substantial majority has adopted codes in whole or part based on the FRE. Because they govern the initial presentation of evidence in a trial, the Rules primarily serve to govern federal trial courts rather than appellate courts, as appellate courts, due to their function and scope address very few questions touching upon the facts of a case. Appellate courts do, however, monitor the application of the rules to ensure consistent application and coherent development of the federal common law of evidence. The Rules are also a focus of most Evidence courses in American law schools


Gravure printing: a method of printing using a plate with many small etched recesses.

Gray market: also known as parallel market[1] is the trade of a commodity through distribution channels which, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized, or unintended by the original manufacturer.

Guilloche: geometric patterns comprising complex patterns of interlaced or interwoven curved fine lines

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