Glossary

R

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Device): small microchips containing, or able to contain, unique and individual information related to the item to which the chip is attached. The chip, and therefore the information, is addressed by means of radio waves which are conveyed to the chip by means of an attached antenna. These devices are now so small that they can be neatly implanted into plastic cards or paper. They can typically be detected at distances ranging from a few millimeters to several meters. Long range detection requires a large antennae.


Raman Spectrometer:


S

Screen printing: a process that uses a fine mesh with an impermeable coating, selected areas of which have been removed to allow the ink to pass through.


Serialization: the application of a unique identifier to each unit in a lot or batch. The identifiers are numbers but might be printed as alphanumerics or barcodes or might be embedded in a chip activated by radio frequency (RFID). The numbers may be sequential or randomly generated; what is important is the same number should not be used twice.


Simulation: packaging or products which do not use the exact same trademark as the original but which look very substantially similar.


Spectrometer: an instrument used for measuring wavelengths of light spectra.


Spectroscopy: the analysis of the wavelength and intensity of a specific area of the electromagnetic spectrum in order to undertake a qualitative or quantitative analysis.


Spectrophotometer: a photometer for measuring the relative intensities of the light in different parts of a spectrum


Spectrophotometry: the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.[1] It is more specific than the general term electromagnetic spectroscopy in that spectrophotometry deals with visible light, near-ultraviolet, and near-infrared, but does not cover time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Spectrophotometry involves the use of a spectrophotometer. A spectrophotometer is a photometer (a device for measuring light intensity) that can measure intensity as a function of the light source wavelength. Important features of spectrophotometers are spectral bandwidth and linear range of absorption measurement.


Security threads: polyester threads that are either fully or partially embedded down the length of the paper into paper during the paper forming process. Fully embedded threads typically less than 1.8mm wide - can only be viewed when the document is held up to the light. Partially embedded threads appear intermittently on one side of the paper. They are typically up to 4mm wide and act as carriers for a range of overt or visible security features


Security fibers: small fibers randomly distributed throughout the paper while it is still in the pulp form. The fibers may be colored or impregnated with fluorescent dyes only visible under UV light.


Substrate: the material or base e.g. paper or film - to which a feature is applied, or in which it is incorporated.


Symbology: for authentication purposes, the generic term to describe the technology on which a coding or serialization system is based


T

Taggant: molecular or microscopic particles that can be organic or inorganic in composition and exhibit specific and unique physical, biological, chemical or spectroscopic properties. Also known as forensic markers


Tamper-evident: devices such as seals and closures that demonstrate that the product or packaging has been opened or otherwise accessed.


Tamper resistant: a product, package or system that provides a barrier to tampering by either normal users of others with physical access


Thermal printing: a process which produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known. The coating turns black in the areas where it is heated, producing an image. Thermal transfer printing is a related method that uses a heat-sensitive ribbon instead of heat-sensitive paper


Thermochromic: the change in color of dyes or inks when their temperature is changed by the application of heat.


Track and trace: the process of monitoring and recording the past and present whereabouts of a shipment, as it passes through different handlers on its way to its destination, through a distribution network. Tracing refers to where the product has been, while tracking refers to where it is going next.


U

Upconversion: Refers to the emission of light when certain characterstics are met with Phosphorous and Lanthanoid elements

Up-converter: a material that absorbs energy at a longer wavelength outside the visible and emits in the visible spectrum. The materials that can achieve this effect are rare and therefore used for security marking.


V

Vet: a: to subject to usually expert appraisal or correction (vet a manuscript) b: to evaluate for possible approval or acceptance (vet the candidates for a position).


W

Watermark: an image in paper produced by varying the thickness and density of the paper mass during paper production. These variations form a discernible image that can be viewed when holding the paper item up to the light.


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